Rate of diffusion α Surface Area x Concentration Difference Distance
This is a similar process to aerobic respiration in mitochondria.
Type One metabolizers come the closest of all the types to being purely sympathetic dominant people. One of the chief characteristics of Type One metabolizers is that they can burn carbohydrates slowly. Their bodies utilize the carbohydrates poorly and they are able to maintain their blood sugar level with very little fluctuation. If anything, their blood sugar level stays a little elevated. With this condition, they can eat mostly fruits and vegetables, maintaining their health and feeling well. These people are what are commonly called vegetarians. They very seldom if ever crave meats (except fish) and when they eat meat, they usually feel groggy and have a loss of energy. These people do not do well on lamb, venison, beef, sardines or salmon. They can do quite well on up to 100% of their diet raw. They should stress the following foods: whole grains including spaghetti, macaroni, breads, cereals; raw (unpasteurized) goats milk, eggs; white fish. They may use spices, 2-3 cups of coffee (non-instant), herbal tea, or an occasional alcoholic beverage or sweet dessert (made with unrefined sugar or raw, unheated honey). They enjoy and do well on nuts and seeds; rice; fruits and vegetables like apples, apricots, bananas, berries, grapes, oranges, pears, plums, grapefruit, asparagus, lima beans, beet tops, cucumbers, sprouts, lettuce, collards, dandelion greens, kale, mustard, turnip greens, spinach, and any leafy green vegetable.
This creates a pool of protons in the periplasm.
Dr Roger Williams was given morphine to control the pain and send him to sleep after an ulcer operation. It did relieve the pain but did not send him to sleep. In fact it made his mind active. So his doctor gave him a second, heavier dose. That would surely do the trick. The result was a mind that raced even faster. He had a long night full of torture.
The structure of a mitochondrion
It should now be clear why the enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation in aerobic conditions are membrane bound. Only in this way could a proton gradient be established. Protons must be vectorially transferred in one direction only for a gradient to be established!
The mitochondria are the site of aerobic respiration.
The Gibbs energy change under such conditions (temperature 310oK,or 37oC) will be
This figure, calculated from the actual concentrations of thereaction components, reflects the energy available as a driving forcefor any other process coupled to ATP hydrolysis under given conditions.
It follows that the same 49.6 kJ mol-1 must be provided bythe proton transport across the membrane down the electrochemicalgradient to maintain such a high ATP/ADP ratio.