Total Synthesis of the Squalene ..

“Revised Structure of Squalene-Derived PentaTHF Polyether,Glabrescol, through Its Enantioselective Total Synthesis:Biogenetically Intriguing vs Symmetric Relationships”,

synthesis and output of fecal total steroids ..

As an example, a glucoside of rhodopsin, found in the photosynthetic part of  is shown below.

In summary, a total synthesis of the natural product ..

Zaragozic acids and squalestatins were documented by Merck, Glaxo, and Tokyo Noko University/Mitsubishi Kasei Corporation as part of a program aimed at identifying novel inhibitors of squalene synthase, as well as farnesyl transferase. These natural products have attracted considerable attention from numerous synthetic chemists because of their therapeutic potential and novel architecture. This review highlights our total syntheses of zaragozic acid C by two convergent strategies. The key steps in our first-generation synthesis involve 1) simultaneous creation of the C4 and C5 quaternary stereocenters through the Sn(OTf)2-promoted aldol coupling reaction between the α-keto ester and silyl ketene thioacetal derived from - and -tartaric acids, respectively; and 2) construction of the bicyclic core structure acid-catalyzed internal ketalization under kinetically controlled conditions. The second-generation strategy relies on a tandem carbonyl ylide formation/1,3-dipolar cycloaddition approach and features elongation of the C1 alkyl side chain through an olefin cross-metathesis as well as high convergency and flexibility.

19/12/2017 · Total Synthesis of t ..

All substance in life, our bodies, our computer, humans and even the grass outside is made of atoms and molecules. Atoms are the smallest unit, while molecules are composed of two or more atoms. Humans and all other organisms maintain their basic structure and function by these molecules and undergo by metabolic reactions. In metabolic reactions, some bigger molecules are broken down into smaller molecules, and other smaller molecules organized into bigger molecules to extract energy for survival, growth and maintenance. Free radicals are produced constantly within and outside the cell, some as by-products of energy-releasing oxidation others by UV light, radioactivity, intake of drugs and chemicals. Inhalation of cigarette smoke, exposure to air pollution and mental stress is also accompanied by an increased production of free radicals, causing disease states such as cancer, atherosclerosis, arthritis, diabetes, dermatological system disorders, cataracts and other age-related diseases. This is where antioxidants is used. Antioxidants neutralizes the harmful free radicals and hence improves quality of life.

Free radicals are created by losing an electron, the antioxidant molecule steps in and supplies the free radical with another electron and hence neutralizes it. Due to its molecular structure, Squalene is an excellent antioxidant possessing great capacity to receive or donate electrons without suffering molecular disruption. Squalene’s powerful free radical-quenching ability has been shown to be equal to that of BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), one of the most powerful antioxidants known to science. This unique stability is the key to Squalene's ability to terminate the on-going or chain damage inside our bodies. (lipid peroxidation chain reaction. According to laboratory research, this happens specifically in the skin’s surface.


Squalene - Powerful immune stimulator
As we know human immune system is a miracle of nature, designed to protect us from the harmful effects of our environment and disease-producing virus, bacteria and other microbes. Without a well-developed and maintained immune system, we will suffer infections and serious life-threatening diseases. Hence optimal function of our immune system is important. Experimental studies have shown that squalene-supplemented diets lead to increased performance of the immune system and laboratory studies have confirmed that squalene enhances the function of macrophages. (macrophages are type of white blood cells that ingests (takes in) or kills bacteria and virus. Macrophages are key players in the immune system) Squalene show broad spectrum of anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties. Hence to maintain good immune response, intake of squalene is very promising in a current stressful and polluted environment.


Squalene – Prevents cancer
Various scientific data on diseases among people suggest, that squalene help prevent cancer and can also fight established tumors.
In Greece, women with high total fat intake, mainly olive oil, have a breast cancer rate of only about one-third that of women in the United States.
In Spain, a case-control study showed a reduced risk for breast cancer in women with the highest olive oil consumption.
In Greece, a large case-control study breast cancer risk was 25% lower in women consuming olive oil more than once a day.
In another case-control study in Spain, women with the highest consumption of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)(largely from olive oil) had a greatly reduced risk of breast cancer.
Leading scientists on this field, Theresa J. Smith and Harold L. Newmark, suggest that this protecting effect can be related to the high concentration (0.2-0.7%) of squalene in olive oil.
Squalene’s powerful antioxidant and cytoprotective effects (protecting cells from damage) are very significant. A research team from Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children demonstrated that squalene has selective cytoprotection on individual cell (in-vitro) and on whole organism. (in-vivo)

Through extensive research, squalene has further been shown to:

L., Facile syntheses of surface-functionalized micelles and shell cross-linked nanoparticles.

01/11/1970 · National Academy of Sciences ..

Zaragozic acids and squalestatins were documented by Merck, Glaxo, and Tokyo Noko University/Mitsubishi Kasei Corporation as part of a program aimed at identifying novel inhibitors of squalene synthase, as well as farnesyl transferase. These natural products have attracted considerable attention from numerous synthetic chemists because of their therapeutic potential and novel architecture. This review highlights our total syntheses of zaragozic acid C by two convergent strategies. The key steps in our first-generation synthesis involve 1) simultaneous creation of the C4 and C5 quaternary stereocenters through the Sn(OTf)2-promoted aldol coupling reaction between the α-keto ester and silyl ketene thioacetal derived from - and -tartaric acids, respectively; and 2) construction of the bicyclic core structure acid-catalyzed internal ketalization under kinetically controlled conditions. The second-generation strategy relies on a tandem carbonyl ylide formation/1,3-dipolar cycloaddition approach and features elongation of the C1 alkyl side chain through an olefin cross-metathesis as well as high convergency and flexibility.

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The sugar moiety is composed of glucose, xylose and even arabinose ().

In bacteria, was shown to be particularly rich in cholesterol glucosides (up to 33% of total lipids), thus suggesting that these molecules may be important chemotaxonomic markers for these species ().
The presence of cholesterol diglucoside was reported in a procaryote () ().

In plants, it has been suggested that sterol glucosides participate to the synthesis of cellulose ().

This site was last updated on 29 December 2017 10:32 AM

What is cholesterol
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance present in our body. The cholesterol in a person's blood originates from two major sources; the diet and the liver. Cholesterol is naturally present in cell walls or membranes everywhere in the body, including the brain, nerves, muscles, skin, liver, intestines, and heart. If we have too much cholesterol in our bloodstream, the excess may be deposited in arteries, including the coronary (heart) arteries, where it contributes to the narrowing and blockages that cause the signs and symptoms of heart disease

Squalene is one of the very ingredients that the body uses to manufacture cholesterol and research suggests that squalene lowers high blood concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides apparently by increasing the liver’s filtering capacity. These laboratory findings are supported by epidemiological correlations of squalene-rich olive oil consumption with a low incidence of coronary heart disease. Since squalene is precursor of the cholesterol synthesis and it metabolite's cholesterol In our body. Squalene increases the useful HDL-cholesterol, whereby decreases the level of bad cholesterol. (LDL-cholesterol)

In addition, The cholesterol lowering property of squalene has prompted pharmacologists to combine squalene with drugs used to lower cholesterol levels (statins) as it also enhances the effectiveness of cholesterol lowering drugs. This leads to lower doses of drug formulations and reduction in potential side effects of drugs used to lower cholesterol levels. This can also reduce in the long term, therapeutic costs of patients having hypercholesterolemia.


Squalene - A unique oxygen generator
Deep sea Sharks use squalene present in their liver to manage the limited amount of oxygen in their deep-water environment. Above sea level, our atmosphere has lost some of the oxygen content it had a century ago, which explain our almost epidemic rates of cancer, heart disease and immune system malfunction etc. Specialists hold the opinion that nearly all human diseases are caused by a deficiency of oxygen in blood and cells. Squalene is the closest thing we have as an oxygen supplement . It facilitates oxygen delivery throughout the body. Squalene is in fact an oxygen generator which provides a sufficient oxygen level and distributes it into the remotest cells of our body. Squalene has shown efficiency in improving the quantity and quality of the oxygen saturation in cells, leading in a impressive number of cases to an enhanced vitality and quality of life.


Squalene – Improves Skin Health, Sharp eye-sight and untroubled cerebration
Several studies indicate that consumption of squalene also provides us with other advantageous effects. The unsaturated fatty acids of squalene plays a crucial role in the moisture regulation of the skin. About 10 percent of our skin surface (skin lipids) is made of squalene. Squalene safeguards and transport oxygen to and from our skin.
Scientists as Kohno and others found, that squalene is a powerful scavenger of reactive singlet oxygen in the surface of human skin. Besides this effect, Squalene helps to make skin healthy and smooth and protects against wrinkles by feeding and guarding important processes in the skin cells.
Laboratory research has shown that Squalene is capable of protecting the skin surface from free radical-induced lipid peroxidation confirming its antioxidant properties. It has also been shown to have positive effects in the management of dermatitis and skin cancer.

Squalene improves the skin health as:
This is one of the many reasons why squalene is widely used in cosmetic formulations as an effective skin moisturizer and also to prevent formation of lines and wrinkles in skin associated with aging process or cancer. A variety of squalene incorporated cosmetic products are available in the markets all over the world.

Squalene is also crucial for the well-being of our eyes especially for the photosensitive cells of the retina. Hence, Squalene proves to be beneficial in various eye disorders.


Why I Need Squalene
Squalene can help enhance the quality of life, due to its anti-oxidant, immune boosting, and oxygen generation properties and can prevent serious diseases or can be very useful for patients suffering from several diseases like heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and hepatitis.
Squalene can help regulate blood cholesterol levels in particular to those who suffer from high cholesterol levels and one who eat a lot of fatty foods.
Squalene can be taken as a general health tonic for hard working people.

Squalene supplements have been widely tested for toxicity and there is considerable proof that squalene is non-toxic and has wide range of benefits as:






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