Synthesis of covalent DNA–protein conjugates by …
Synthesis and Applications of Covalent Protein ..
Protein-oligonucleotide conjugates have been used in a variety of biological and biotechnological applications., Oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) tags have been attached to proteins in order to encode multiplexed protein libraries, to immobilize proteins to surfaces in the fabrication of protein arrays, , and to identify targets in protein- and immuno-diagnostics via PCR or mass spectroscopy. Conjugating antisense ODNs to proteins has been shown to enhance cellular delivery of the nucleic acid component. In addition, ODNs attached to proteins have been used as architectural tools, as a means of spatially organizing multiple proteins into multimeric assemblies.– Different strategies have been used to connect proteins to ODNs, using both noncovalent and covalent chemistries. Synthesizing discrete protein-ODN conjugates via noncovalent (e.g., biotin-streptavidin and nickel-histidine ) interactions is convenient, but the resulting conjugates can reversibly dissociate during purification and subsequent handling. Covalent protein-ODN conjugates have also been synthesized by connecting appropriately functionalized ODNs and proteins, using a wide variety of chemistries. Some of these chemistries involve direct attachment of the ODN to an amino acid residue on the protein surface—usually a lysine amine or a cysteine thiol—while other, more complex schemes require post-translational modification of the protein,, or the involvement of a catalytic or reactive protein domain.–
Synthesis and applications of covalent protein-DNA conjugates 2009 ..
Synthetic protein-DNA conjugates are valuable tools with applications in fields including nanobiotechnology, bioanalytical chemistry and molecular diagnostics, and various synthetic methods for their production have been developed during the last three decades. The present article reviews current methodologies for the synthesis of covalent protein-DNA conjugates with particular focus on the regiospecifity and stoichiometry of these reactions.